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Metoclopramide hydrochloride – a white, crystalline substance which has no smell and easily dissolves in the water.Pharmacology
It is an effective pro-kinetic, antiemetic and hiccup solution. An antagonist of dopamine (D2) receptors and serotonin (5-HT3) receptors. It stimulates the motor activity of upper gastrointestinal and normalizes its function. Enhances skin tone and amplitude of gastric contractions (especially antral), relaxes the pyloric sphincter and duodenal bulb, increases peristalsis and accelerates gastric emptying. Normalizes the zone of bile, reduces the spasm of sphincter of Oddi, and eliminates dyskinesia of the gallbladder.
Works as an effective antiemetic for nausea and vomiting of various etiologies, including caused by cancer chemotherapy (prevention) related to anesthesia, side effects of medications (digitalis preparations, cytotoxic agents, antituberculosis drugs, antibiotics, morphine), liver and kidney diseases, uremia, head injury, vomiting during pregnancy, in violation of the diet. Metoclopramide is used to prevent gastric stasis and nausea and works as a stimulator of the absorption of drugs. When you use Metoclopramide it is best to remember that is not effective for vomiting of the vestibular origin.
It inhibits central and peripheral effects of apomorphine, increases the secretion of prolactin, causing a transient increase in aldosterone (possible short-term fluid retention), and increases the sensitivity of tissues to acetylcholine.
Cheap metoclopramide is rapidly and well absorbed after oral usage, Cmax is achieved in 1-2 hours after receiving a single dose, bioavailability – 60-80%. When you purchase metoclopramide, ask about the dosage. Real medicine will take effect within 1-3 minutes after the introduction or 30-60 min after the oral use, the effect lasts 1-2 hours.When to use Metoclopramide?
The medicine cures nausea, vomiting, hiccups of different origin (in some cases it may be effective for vomiting caused by radiation therapy or receiving cytotoxic drugs), functional dyspepsia, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, hypotension and agony of the stomach or used as a preparation for diagnostic gastrointestinal studies.Contraindications
Hypersensitivity, bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract, gastric pyloric stenosis, mechanical intestinal obstruction, perforation of the stomach, glaucoma, Epilepsy (severity and frequency of seizures may increase), Parkinson’s disease, tumors, early childhood up to 2 years (increased risk of dyskinetic syndrome).
To exclude any accidents it is best to take an advice from the doctor that is in charge off your case.Restrictions
Asthma (increased risk of bronchospasm), hypertension, liver or renal failure, advanced age, children under 14 years. In pregnancy, the use is possible only when necessary (adequate and well controlled studies in humans are not carried out). Although complications have been reported in humans, during breast-feeding so it should be used with caution (passes into breast milk).
The price of metoclopramide depends on the dose. Before you order metoclopramideask about the doses and usage from the attending doctor.Metoclopramide side effects
The frequency of side effects correlated with the dose and duration of treatment. The nervous system and sense organs: restlessness (10%), somnolence (10%, often at high doses), unusual tiredness or weakness (10%). Extra-pyramidal disorders, including sensitive dystonic reactions muscular hypertonicity and spasms of the extra ocular muscles. It can add Parkinson symptoms, uncontrolled chewing movements, uncontrolled movements of arms and legs. Insomnia, headache, dizziness, disorientation, depression, anxiety, confusion, tinnitus and rare hallucinations. There are rare reports on the development of neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Cardio-vascular system and blood: hypotension / hypertension, tachycardia, fluid retention.Allergic reactions
Frequent urination, urinary incontinence, menstrual disorders, asymptomatic slight congestion of the nasal mucosa, agranulocytosis.Interaction
May reduce the absorption of digoxin from the stomach (may be required dosage adjustment of digoxin). Can accelerate the absorption of meksiletina. Accelerates the absorption of paracetamol, tetracycline. The simultaneous use of alcohol may increase the depressant effect of alcohol or metoclopramide on the CNS, as well as expedite the removal of alcohol from the stomach may thus increasing the rate and extent of its absorption in the small intestine.Combined use of drugs containing opioids, can block the action of metoclopramide on gastrointestinal motility. Concomitant use of metoclopramide may reduce the effect of cimetidine by reducing its absorption.Dosage
Adults: inside – 5-10 mg three times daily before meals, 10 mg maximum single dose – 20 mg maximum daily – 60 mg (for all routes of administration).Children older than 2 years – depending on age. Patients with liver failure the initial dose reduced by 2 times due to the increase of T1 / 2. If the kidney function the dose is adjusted according to creatinine clearance.
Before using Metoclopramide you must first consult your doctor. Doctor advice is very important when using such medications. Metoclopramide can be used in patients with a history of depression only if the anticipated benefits outweigh the potential risks.
Extrapyramidal disorders may occur when using metoclopramide in therapeutic doses in patients of any age (see “Side Effects”). But more often they occur when taking high doses. Extrapyramidal symptoms, expressed primarily as acute dystonic reactions, manifested in the first 24-48 h of treatment. During the use metoclopramide therapy, patients should not drink alcoholic beverages to avoid the risk of complications.